Peripheral Vascular Disease

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is caused by a decrease in blood flow to their arms, legs, or feet. If left untreated, this systemic, whole body condition can lead to heart attack, stroke, severe leg pain, ulceration, infections, and/or amputation. PAD accounts for the majority of leg and foot amputation in the United States.

  • Over Age 50
  • Diabetes
  • Tobacco abuse/ Smoking History
  • Overweight
  • Lack of Activity
  • High Blood Pressure
  • High Cholesterol
  • Family History of Vascular Disease (PAD, aneurysm, heart attack, or stroke)
  • Intermittent claudication is painful cramping in the leg that occurs when walking, and typically disappears when the activity stops
  • Numbness, tingling, and weakness in the lower legs and feet
  • Burning or aching pain in feet or toes when resting
  • Pain in the legs or feet that awakens you at night
  • Slow healing sore on leg or foot
  • Lower temperature in one leg
  • Loss of hair on legs
  • Color change in skin of legs or feet
  • Claudication
  • Rest pain
  • Ulceration
  • Gangrene
  • Limb loss
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Lifestyle changes that increase activity
  • Medication to lower cholesterol
  • Medication to control blood pressure
  • Surgery to bypass the blocked artery
  • Minimally invasive treatments including balloon angioplasty, stent placement, and/or atherectomy to remove the plaque from the inside of the blood vessels.

We offer ABI screening to screen all patients, especially high risk patients for PVD. CT angiography (CTA): If the screening ABI was positive, then we can further evaluate/confirm your disease by doing CT angiography which is a test that uses CT scanner to produce detailed views of the arteries in your abdomen, pelvis and legs, after injecting contrast agent through peripheral IV line. This test is particularly useful to provide us with the needed information of how to treat your peripheral vascular disease.

An angiogram is a high resolution picture of your arteries, performed using a colorless dye or CO2 and an x-ray machine to outline your blood vessels. By clearly identifying where and how severe the blockages are, your doctor will be able to advise you on what treatment may be necessary. In the Vascular & Interventional Institute of Louisville, we offer all kind on Endovascular treatments:


  • Angioplasty uses inflatable devices called balloons to open up narrowed arteries.


  • Stenting uses small metal tubes to hold open narrowed arteries that are closing.


  • When a blood clot suddenly blocks blood flow, a treatment known as a thrombectomy will remove the clot from the body using various medical tools that can draw out, pull out, or vaporize the clot. The method chosen depends on the preference of the physician and the location of the clot.


  • Thrombolysis delivers medication slowly, over 12-24 hours, to a blood clot through a thin tube that is inserted next to or within the clot.


  • An atherectomy is a procedure that utilizes a catheter with a sharp blade on the end to remove plaque from a blood vessel.

We will arrange for you to have some simple blood tests. The IR doctor needs to see a list of all of your medications (tablets, inhalers, creams), so please bring a copy of your current prescriptions with you.

Sometimes, certain medicines need to be stopped before your procedure. The IR doctor or nurse will be able to advise you whether you need to stop any medicines. These medicines can be restarted after your angiogram – but the IR doctor or nurse will advise you on this.